In the section CometBFT’s expected behaviour, we presented the most common behaviour, usually referred to as the good case. However, the grammar specified in the same section is more general and covers more scenarios that an Application designer needs to account for.
In this section, we give more information about these possible scenarios. We focus on methods
introduced by ABCI++:
ProcessProposal. Specifically, we concentrate
on the part of the grammar presented below.
consensus-height = *consensus-round decide commit consensus-round = proposer / non-proposer proposer = [prepare-proposal process-proposal] non-proposer = [process-proposal]
We can see from the grammar that we can have several rounds before deciding a block. The reasons why one round may not be enough are:
If we assume that the consensus algorithm decides on block $X$ in round $r$, in the rounds $r’ <= r$, CometBFT can exhibit any of the following behaviours:
ProcessProposalfor block $X$.
ProcessProposalfor block $Y \neq X$.
In the rounds when it is the proposer, CometBFT’s
PrepareProposal call is always followed by the
ProcessProposal call. The reason is that the process always delivers the proposal to itself, which
As the number of rounds the consensus algorithm needs to decide in a given run is a priori unknown, the application needs to account for any number of rounds, where each round can exhibit any of these three behaviours. Recall that the application is unaware of the internals of consensus and thus of the rounds.
The unknown number of rounds we can have when following the consensus algorithm yields a vast number of scenarios we can expect. Listing them all is unfeasible. However, here we give several of them and draw the main conclusions. Specifically, we will show that before block $X$ is decided:
PrepareProposalmay be called multiple times and for different blocks (Scenario 1).
ProcessProposalmay be called multiple times and for different blocks (Scenario 2).
ProcessProposalfor block $X$ may not be called (Scenario 3).
ProcessProposalmay not be called at all (Scenario 4).
Each scenario is presented from the perspective of a process $p$. More precisely, we show what happens in each round’s $step$ of the Tendermint consensus algorithm. While in practice the consensus algorithm works with respect to voting power of the validators, in this document we refer to number of processes (e.g., $n$, $f+1$, $2f+1$) for simplicity. The legend is below:
ProcessProposal many times with different values.
ProcessProposal. All correct processes do the same.
ProcessProposalfor block $Y$, and broadcasts a $Prevote$ message for it.
ProcessProposalfor new block $Z$, and broadcasts a $Prevote$ message for it.
Rounds like these can continue until we have a round in which process $p$ updates its $validValue$ or until
we reach round $r$ where process $p$ decides on a block. After that, it will not call
anymore for this height.
PrepareProposal many times with different values.
PrepareProposalfor $Y$. After that, it broadcasts the proposal, delivers it to itself, calls
ProcessProposaland broadcasts $Prevote$ for it.
After this round, we can have multiple rounds like those in Scenario 1. The important thing
is that process $p$ should not update its $validValue$. Consequently, when process $p$ reaches the round
when it is again the proposer, it will ask the mempool for the new block again, and the mempool may return a
different block $Z$, and we can have the same round as Round 0 just for a different block. As
a result, process $p$ calls
PrepareProposal again but for a different value. When it reaches round $r$
some process will propose block $X$ and if $p$ receives $2f+1$ $Precommit$ messages, it will decide on this
ProcessProposal for many values, but decides on a value for which it did
In this scenario, in all rounds before $r$ we can have any round presented in Scenario 1 or Scenario 2. What is important is that:
no proposer proposed block $X$ or if it did, process $p$, due to asynchrony, did not receive it in time,
so it did not call
if $p$ was the proposer it proposed some other value $\neq X$.
ProcessProposalfor block $X$. However, the same proposal arrives at other processes before their $timeoutPropose$ expires, and they send $Prevote$ for this proposal.
Scenario 3 can be translated into a scenario where $p$ does not call
ProcessProposal at all. For this, it is necessary that process $p$ is not the proposer in any of the
rounds $0 <= r’ <= r$ and that due to network asynchrony or Byzantine proposer, it does not receive the
proposal before $timeoutPropose$ expires. As a result, it will enter round $r$ without calling
ProcessProposal before it, and as shown in Round $r$ of Scenario 3 it
will decide in this round. Again without calling any of these two calls.