Configuration

CometBFT can be configured via a TOML file in $CMTHOME/config/config.toml. Some of these parameters can be overridden by command-line flags. For most users, the options in the ##### main base configuration options ##### are intended to be modified while config options further below are intended for advance power users.

Options

The default configuration file create by cometbft init has all the parameters set with their default values. It will look something like the file below, however, double check by inspecting the config.toml created with your version of cometbft installed:

# This is a TOML config file.
# For more information, see https://github.com/toml-lang/toml

# NOTE: Any path below can be absolute (e.g. "/var/myawesomeapp/data") or
# relative to the home directory (e.g. "data"). The home directory is
# "$HOME/.cometbft" by default, but could be changed via $CMTHOME env variable
# or --home cmd flag.

#######################################################################
###                   Main Base Config Options                      ###
#######################################################################

# TCP or UNIX socket address of the ABCI application,
# or the name of an ABCI application compiled in with the CometBFT binary
proxy_app = "tcp://127.0.0.1:26658"

# A custom human readable name for this node
moniker = "anonymous"

# If this node is many blocks behind the tip of the chain, BlockSync
# allows them to catchup quickly by downloading blocks in parallel
# and verifying their commits
#
# Deprecated: this key will be removed and BlockSync will be enabled 
# unconditionally in the next major release.
block_sync = true

# Database backend: goleveldb | cleveldb | boltdb | rocksdb | badgerdb
# * goleveldb (github.com/syndtr/goleveldb - most popular implementation)
#   - pure go
#   - stable
# * cleveldb (uses levigo wrapper)
#   - fast
#   - requires gcc
#   - use cleveldb build tag (go build -tags cleveldb)
# * boltdb (uses etcd's fork of bolt - github.com/etcd-io/bbolt)
#   - EXPERIMENTAL
#   - may be faster is some use-cases (random reads - indexer)
#   - use boltdb build tag (go build -tags boltdb)
# * rocksdb (uses github.com/tecbot/gorocksdb)
#   - EXPERIMENTAL
#   - requires gcc
#   - use rocksdb build tag (go build -tags rocksdb)
# * badgerdb (uses github.com/dgraph-io/badger)
#   - EXPERIMENTAL
#   - use badgerdb build tag (go build -tags badgerdb)
db_backend = "goleveldb"

# Database directory
db_dir = "data"

# Output level for logging, including package level options
log_level = "main:info,state:info,statesync:info,*:error"

# Output format: 'plain' (colored text) or 'json'
log_format = "plain"

##### additional base config options #####

# Path to the JSON file containing the initial validator set and other meta data
genesis_file = "config/genesis.json"

# Path to the JSON file containing the private key to use as a validator in the consensus protocol
priv_validator_key_file = "config/priv_validator_key.json"

# Path to the JSON file containing the last sign state of a validator
priv_validator_state_file = "data/priv_validator_state.json"

# TCP or UNIX socket address for CometBFT to listen on for
# connections from an external PrivValidator process
priv_validator_laddr = ""

# Path to the JSON file containing the private key to use for node authentication in the p2p protocol
node_key_file = "config/node_key.json"

# Mechanism to connect to the ABCI application: socket | grpc
abci = "socket"

# If true, query the ABCI app on connecting to a new peer
# so the app can decide if we should keep the connection or not
filter_peers = false


#######################################################################
###                 Advanced Configuration Options                  ###
#######################################################################

#######################################################
###       RPC Server Configuration Options          ###
#######################################################
[rpc]

# TCP or UNIX socket address for the RPC server to listen on
laddr = "tcp://127.0.0.1:26657"

# A list of origins a cross-domain request can be executed from
# Default value '[]' disables cors support
# Use '["*"]' to allow any origin
cors_allowed_origins = []

# A list of methods the client is allowed to use with cross-domain requests
cors_allowed_methods = ["HEAD", "GET", "POST", ]

# A list of non simple headers the client is allowed to use with cross-domain requests
cors_allowed_headers = ["Origin", "Accept", "Content-Type", "X-Requested-With", "X-Server-Time", ]

# TCP or UNIX socket address for the gRPC server to listen on
# NOTE: This server only supports /broadcast_tx_commit
grpc_laddr = ""

# Maximum number of simultaneous connections.
# Does not include RPC (HTTP&WebSocket) connections. See max_open_connections
# If you want to accept a larger number than the default, make sure
# you increase your OS limits.
# 0 - unlimited.
# Should be < {ulimit -Sn} - {MaxNumInboundPeers} - {MaxNumOutboundPeers} - {N of wal, db and other open files}
# 1024 - 40 - 10 - 50 = 924 = ~900
grpc_max_open_connections = 900

# Activate unsafe RPC commands like /dial_seeds and /unsafe_flush_mempool
unsafe = false

# Maximum number of simultaneous connections (including WebSocket).
# Does not include gRPC connections. See grpc_max_open_connections
# If you want to accept a larger number than the default, make sure
# you increase your OS limits.
# 0 - unlimited.
# Should be < {ulimit -Sn} - {MaxNumInboundPeers} - {MaxNumOutboundPeers} - {N of wal, db and other open files}
# 1024 - 40 - 10 - 50 = 924 = ~900
max_open_connections = 900

# Maximum number of unique clientIDs that can /subscribe
# If you're using /broadcast_tx_commit, set to the estimated maximum number
# of broadcast_tx_commit calls per block.
max_subscription_clients = 100

# Maximum number of unique queries a given client can /subscribe to
# If you're using GRPC (or Local RPC client) and /broadcast_tx_commit, set to
# the estimated # maximum number of broadcast_tx_commit calls per block.
max_subscriptions_per_client = 5

# How long to wait for a tx to be committed during /broadcast_tx_commit.
# WARNING: Using a value larger than 10s will result in increasing the
# global HTTP write timeout, which applies to all connections and endpoints.
# See https://github.com/tendermint/tendermint/issues/3435
timeout_broadcast_tx_commit = "10s"

# Maximum size of request body, in bytes
max_body_bytes = 1000000

# Maximum size of request header, in bytes
max_header_bytes = 1048576

# The path to a file containing certificate that is used to create the HTTPS server.
# Might be either absolute path or path related to CometBFT's config directory.
# If the certificate is signed by a certificate authority,
# the certFile should be the concatenation of the server's certificate, any intermediates,
# and the CA's certificate.
# NOTE: both tls_cert_file and tls_key_file must be present for CometBFT to create HTTPS server.
# Otherwise, HTTP server is run.
tls_cert_file = ""

# The path to a file containing matching private key that is used to create the HTTPS server.
# Might be either absolute path or path related to CometBFT's config directory.
# NOTE: both tls_cert_file and tls_key_file must be present for CometBFT to create HTTPS server.
# Otherwise, HTTP server is run.
tls_key_file = ""

# pprof listen address (https://golang.org/pkg/net/http/pprof)
pprof_laddr = ""

#######################################################
###           P2P Configuration Options             ###
#######################################################
[p2p]

# Address to listen for incoming connections
laddr = "tcp://0.0.0.0:26656"

# Address to advertise to peers for them to dial
# If empty, will use the same port as the laddr,
# and will introspect on the listener or use UPnP
# to figure out the address.
external_address = ""

# Comma separated list of seed nodes to connect to
seeds = ""

# Comma separated list of nodes to keep persistent connections to
persistent_peers = ""

# UPNP port forwarding
upnp = false

# Path to address book
addr_book_file = "config/addrbook.json"

# Set true for strict address routability rules
# Set false for private or local networks
addr_book_strict = true

# Maximum number of inbound peers
max_num_inbound_peers = 40

# Maximum number of outbound peers to connect to, excluding persistent peers
max_num_outbound_peers = 10

# List of node IDs, to which a connection will be (re)established ignoring any existing limits
unconditional_peer_ids = ""

# Maximum pause when redialing a persistent peer (if zero, exponential backoff is used)
persistent_peers_max_dial_period = "0s"

# Time to wait before flushing messages out on the connection
flush_throttle_timeout = "100ms"

# Maximum size of a message packet payload, in bytes
max_packet_msg_payload_size = 1024

# Rate at which packets can be sent, in bytes/second
send_rate = 5120000

# Rate at which packets can be received, in bytes/second
recv_rate = 5120000

# Set true to enable the peer-exchange reactor
pex = true

# Seed mode, in which node constantly crawls the network and looks for
# peers. If another node asks it for addresses, it responds and disconnects.
#
# Does not work if the peer-exchange reactor is disabled.
seed_mode = false

# Comma separated list of peer IDs to keep private (will not be gossiped to other peers)
private_peer_ids = ""

# Toggle to disable guard against peers connecting from the same ip.
allow_duplicate_ip = false

# Peer connection configuration.
handshake_timeout = "20s"
dial_timeout = "3s"

#######################################################
###          Mempool Configurattion Option          ###
#######################################################
[mempool]

recheck = true
broadcast = true
wal_dir = ""

# Maximum number of transactions in the mempool
size = 5000

# Limit the total size of all txs in the mempool.
# This only accounts for raw transactions (e.g. given 1MB transactions and
# max_txs_bytes=5MB, mempool will only accept 5 transactions).
max_txs_bytes = 1073741824

# Size of the cache (used to filter transactions we saw earlier) in transactions
cache_size = 10000

# Do not remove invalid transactions from the cache (default: false)
# Set to true if it's not possible for any invalid transaction to become valid
# again in the future.
keep-invalid-txs-in-cache = false

# Maximum size of a single transaction.
# NOTE: the max size of a tx transmitted over the network is {max_tx_bytes}.
max_tx_bytes = 1048576

# Maximum size of a batch of transactions to send to a peer
# Including space needed by encoding (one varint per transaction).
# XXX: Unused due to https://github.com/tendermint/tendermint/issues/5796
max_batch_bytes = 10485760

#######################################################
###         State Sync Configuration Options        ###
#######################################################
[statesync]
# State sync rapidly bootstraps a new node by discovering, fetching, and restoring a state machine
# snapshot from peers instead of fetching and replaying historical blocks. Requires some peers in
# the network to take and serve state machine snapshots. State sync is not attempted if the node
# has any local state (LastBlockHeight > 0). The node will have a truncated block history,
# starting from the height of the snapshot.
enable = false

# RPC servers (comma-separated) for light client verification of the synced state machine and
# retrieval of state data for node bootstrapping. Also needs a trusted height and corresponding
# header hash obtained from a trusted source, and a period during which validators can be trusted.
#
# For Cosmos SDK-based chains, trust_period should usually be about 2/3 of the unbonding time (~2
# weeks) during which they can be financially punished (slashed) for misbehavior.
rpc_servers = ""
trust_height = 0
trust_hash = ""
trust_period = "0s"

# Temporary directory for state sync snapshot chunks, defaults to the OS tempdir (typically /tmp).
# Will create a new, randomly named directory within, and remove it when done.
temp_dir = ""

#######################################################
###       Block Sync Configuration Options          ###
#######################################################
[blocksync]

# Block Sync version to use:
# 
# In v0.37, v1 and v2 of the block sync protocols were deprecated.
# Please use v0 instead.
#
#   1) "v0" - the default block sync implementation
version = "v0"

#######################################################
###         Consensus Configuration Options         ###
#######################################################
[consensus]

wal_file = "data/cs.wal/wal"

# How long we wait for a proposal block before prevoting nil
timeout_propose = "3s"
# How much timeout_propose increases with each round
timeout_propose_delta = "500ms"
# How long we wait after receiving +2/3 prevotes for “anything” (ie. not a single block or nil)
timeout_prevote = "1s"
# How much the timeout_prevote increases with each round
timeout_prevote_delta = "500ms"
# How long we wait after receiving +2/3 precommits for “anything” (ie. not a single block or nil)
timeout_precommit = "1s"
# How much the timeout_precommit increases with each round
timeout_precommit_delta = "500ms"
# How long we wait after committing a block, before starting on the new
# height (this gives us a chance to receive some more precommits, even
# though we already have +2/3).
timeout_commit = "1s"

# How many blocks to look back to check existence of the node's consensus votes before joining consensus
# When non-zero, the node will panic upon restart
# if the same consensus key was used to sign {double_sign_check_height} last blocks.
# So, validators should stop the state machine, wait for some blocks, and then restart the state machine to avoid panic.
double_sign_check_height = 0

# Make progress as soon as we have all the precommits (as if TimeoutCommit = 0)
skip_timeout_commit = false

# EmptyBlocks mode and possible interval between empty blocks
create_empty_blocks = true
create_empty_blocks_interval = "0s"

# Reactor sleep duration parameters
peer_gossip_sleep_duration = "100ms"
peer_query_maj23_sleep_duration = "2s"

#######################################################
###   Transaction Indexer Configuration Options     ###
#######################################################
[tx_index]

# What indexer to use for transactions
#
# The application will set which txs to index. In some cases a node operator will be able
# to decide which txs to index based on configuration set in the application.
#
# Options:
#   1) "null"
#   2) "kv" (default) - the simplest possible indexer, backed by key-value storage (defaults to levelDB; see DBBackend).
# 		- When "kv" is chosen "tx.height" and "tx.hash" will always be indexed.
indexer = "kv"

#######################################################
###       Instrumentation Configuration Options     ###
#######################################################
[instrumentation]

# When true, Prometheus metrics are served under /metrics on
# PrometheusListenAddr.
# Check out the documentation for the list of available metrics.
prometheus = false

# Address to listen for Prometheus collector(s) connections
prometheus_listen_addr = ":26660"

# Maximum number of simultaneous connections.
# If you want to accept a larger number than the default, make sure
# you increase your OS limits.
# 0 - unlimited.
max_open_connections = 3

# Instrumentation namespace
namespace = "cometbft"

Empty blocks VS no empty blocks

create_empty_blocks = true

If create_empty_blocks is set to true in your config, blocks will be created ~ every second (with default consensus parameters). You can regulate the delay between blocks by changing the timeout_commit. E.g. timeout_commit = "10s" should result in ~ 10 second blocks.

create_empty_blocks = false

In this setting, blocks are created when transactions received.

Note after the block H, CometBFT creates something we call a “proof block” (only if the application hash changed) H+1. The reason for this is to support proofs. If you have a transaction in block H that changes the state to X, the new application hash will only be included in block H+1. If after your transaction is committed, you want to get a light-client proof for the new state (X), you need the new block to be committed in order to do that because the new block has the new application hash for the state X. That’s why we make a new (empty) block if the application hash changes. Otherwise, you won’t be able to make a proof for the new state.

Plus, if you set create_empty_blocks_interval to something other than the default (0), CometBFT will be creating empty blocks even in the absence of transactions every create_empty_blocks_interval. For instance, with create_empty_blocks = false and create_empty_blocks_interval = "30s", CometBFT will only create blocks if there are transactions, or after waiting 30 seconds without receiving any transactions.

Consensus timeouts explained

There’s a variety of information about timeouts in Running in production.

You can also find more detailed explanation in the paper describing the Tendermint consensus algorithm, adopted by CometBFT: The latest gossip on BFT consensus.

[consensus]
...

timeout_propose = "3s"
timeout_propose_delta = "500ms"
timeout_prevote = "1s"
timeout_prevote_delta = "500ms"
timeout_precommit = "1s"
timeout_precommit_delta = "500ms"
timeout_commit = "1s"

Note that in a successful round, the only timeout that we absolutely wait no matter what is timeout_commit.

Here’s a brief summary of the timeouts:

Decorative Orb